Correlational finding on Happiness and Young versus old
Subject code: A04ab01

StudyGross et al. (1997): study NO 1992
TitleEmotion and Aging: Experience, Expression, and Control.
SourcePsychology and Ageing, 1997, Vol. 12, 590 - 599
URLhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9416628
PublicYoung and old, Norway, Trondheim, 199?
SampleProbability area sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =49

Correlate
Author's labelAge
Page in Source 594
Our classificationYoung versus old, code A04ab01
Operationalization
1: aged 20 35      (young)
2: old aged 70+  (old)
Observed distributionN = 1:30, 2: 19

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-cDM=+
aged 25- 35 years M = 3.67 SD = 0.55
aged 70+    years M = 3.68 SD = 0.48
- difference          0.01
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-ct.=.11


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
M-TH-u-sq-v-4-cSelfreport on single question

Do you feel the following emotions…. Happy
4 often feel happy
3 sometimes feel happy
2 seldom feel happy
1 never feel happy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
t.t-STATISTIC (Student's t-statistic)
Type: symmetric standard test statistic.
One parameter: n (= number of degrees of freedom (df) ; range df: [1; + infinite)
Range for t: unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is the ratio of a difference between a statistic and its expected value under the null hypothesis and its (estimated) standard error with n degrees of freedom.
The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl