Correlational finding on Happiness and Unemployed involuntary
Subject code: E02ab03

StudyShields et al. (2009): study AU 2001
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Economic and Social Characteristics of Neighbourhoods.
SourceJournal of Population Economics, 2009, Vol. 22, 421 - 443
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00148-007-0146-7
Public15+ aged general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response34%
Respondents N =13903

Correlate
Author's labelUnemployed
Page in Source 433, 440
Our classificationUnemployed involuntary, code E02ab03
Operationalization
Self-report on two questions:
At any time at all during the last 7 days, did you do 
any work in a job, business or farm?
A)Yes
b) No 
c) Permanently unable to work

If answering b)
At any time during the last 4 weeks have you
looked for work? 
1: yes
0: no

Classification:
1: Unemployed (when answering b) and 'yes'
0: Full-time employee (classified on basis of multiple 
questions)
Observed distribution1: 5%; 0: 34%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.43 p < .01
MALES
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.23 ns
FEMALES

OPRC's controlled for:
- neighbourhood fixed effects (unobserved 
characteristics of the neighbourhood)
- age and age squared
- number of children
- marital status
- number of parents
- being an Aboriginal/Torres Strait Islander
- immigrant status
- English speaking ability
- health
- level of education
- household income
- house ownership
- religion
- frequency-preference of paying bills
- suspicious of interview questions
- others present during interview
- respondent was living with both parents  
  at age 14

Males:
Interaction unemployment*local unemployment rate: 
Males:   OPRC= +.02(p<.05)
Females: OPRC= -.00(ns)


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life?
Again, pick a number between 0 and 10 to indicate how satisfied you are.
0 totally dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 totally satisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A one unit increase in the independent variable corresponds to a higher probability of responding in the highest category of the dependent variable and to a lower probability of responding in the lowest category of the dependent variable.

OLRC< 0 A one unit increase in the independent variable corresponds to a lower probability of responding in the highest category of the dependent variable and to a higher probability of responding in the lowest category of the dependent variable.

OLRC = 0 No relationship between the independent and dependent variable..

Remarks:
The interpretation for the intermediate categories of the dependent variable are ambiguous. It is advised to use marginal effects..
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl