Correlational finding on Happiness and Local ethnic diversity
Subject code: L11ab02

StudyShields et al. (2009): study AU 2001
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Economic and Social Characteristics of Neighbourhoods.
SourceJournal of Population Economics, 2009, Vol. 22, 421 - 443
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00148-007-0146-7
Public15+ aged general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response34%
Respondents N =13903

Correlate
Author's labelNeighbourhood characteristic: % immigrants
Page in Source 427, 436, 438, 441
Our classificationLocal ethnic diversity, code L11ab02
Operationalization
Percentage of immigrants from non-English speaking 
countries in total neighbourhood population.
  1: <5%
  2: ?20%
Observed distributionMales: M=12.5% SD=12.4; Females: M=12.8% SD=12.5
Remarks
A neighbourhood consists of approximately 250 
households on average who live in close proximity to 
each other.

Data derived  from Australian population census

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=-
                    Males   Females   
<5% immigrants      8.03    8.13
?20% immigrants     7.60    7.74     
- difference         .43    .39
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.01 p < .01
MALES
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=-.01 p < .01
FEMALES

OPRC's controlled for:
- region in Australia
- remoteness of place of residence
- relative income
- neighbourhood characteristics
  a) rate of single parents
  b) unemployment rate 
  c) rate of home owners
  d) rate of employees working in a 
     professional occupation
  e) aged 65 years and over
  f) social interaction and social support
  g) local disamenity
  h) insecurity in the neighbourhood
- age and age squared
- marital status
- number of children
- number of adults in household
- being an Aborginal/Torres Strait Islander
- being an immigrant
- English speaking ability
- health
- education
- employment status
- household income
- house ownership
- religion
- frequency-preference of paying bills
- suspicious of interview questions
- others present during interview
- respondent was living with both parents  
  at age 14

OPRC's are similar when controlling for:
- duration of living in residence
instead of:
- relative income


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life?
Again, pick a number between 0 and 10 to indicate how satisfied you are.
0 totally dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 totally satisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A one unit increase in the independent variable corresponds to a higher probability of responding in the highest category of the dependent variable and to a lower probability of responding in the lowest category of the dependent variable.

OLRC< 0 A one unit increase in the independent variable corresponds to a lower probability of responding in the highest category of the dependent variable and to a higher probability of responding in the lowest category of the dependent variable.

OLRC = 0 No relationship between the independent and dependent variable..

Remarks:
The interpretation for the intermediate categories of the dependent variable are ambiguous. It is advised to use marginal effects..
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl