Correlational finding on Happiness and Remoteness
Subject code: L14ab06

StudyShields et al. (2009): study AU 2001
TitleLife Satisfaction and the Economic and Social Characteristics of Neighbourhoods.
SourceJournal of Population Economics, 2009, Vol. 22, 421 - 443
DOIDOI: 10.1007/s00148-007-0146-7
Public15+ aged general public, Australia, 2001
SampleProbability multi-stage random
Non-Response34%
Respondents N =13903

Correlate
Author's labelRemoteness
Page in Source 427, 436, 438, 441
Our classificationRemoteness, code L14ab06
Operationalization
Calculated by the  accessibility to some 201 Australian 
service centres based on road distances based on the 
road distance to service centres.
Classified into:
a) Major cities
b) Inner regional
c) Outer regional
d) Remote areas
Observed distributiona) 59%, b) 28%, c) 12%, d) 2%
Remarks
Accessibility/Remoteness Index for Australia (ARIA)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dDM=+
                 Males   Females   Total
Major cities     7.81    7.90      7.86
Inner regional   7.99    8.15      8.07
Outer regional   8.12    8.25      8.19
Remote           8.22    8.39      8.31
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+
                 Males       Females   
Major cities     ----------------reference     
Inner regional   -.00(ns)     +.06(ns)     
Outer regional   +.13(.05)    +.19(.01)      
Remote           +.12(ns)     +.20(.1)

OPRC's controlled for:
- state/territory of residence
- neighbourhood characteristics
  a) unemployment rate
  b) rate of single parents
  c) rate of immigrants from non-English 
     speaking countries
  d) rate of home owners
  e) rate of employees working in a 
     professional occupation
  f) aged 65 years and over
- age and age squared
- marital status
- number of children
- number of adults in household
- being an Aborginal/Torres Strait Islander
- being an immigrant
- English speaking ability
- health
- education
- employment status
- household income
- house ownership
- religion
- frequency-preference of paying bills
- suspicious of interview questions
- others present during interview
- respondent was living with both parents  
  at age 14
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+
                 Males      Females   
Major cities     ----------------reference     
Inner regional   -.03(ns)   +.05(ns)    
Outer regional   +.09(ns)   +.17(.01)    
Remote           +.04(ns)   +.14(ns)

OPRC's additionally controlled for:
- 3 additional neighbourhood characteristics
  g) social interaction and social support
  h) local disamenity
  i) insecurity in the neighbourhood
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+
                 Males     Females   
Major cities     ----------------reference     
Inner regional   -.03(ns)   +.05(ns)    
Outer regional   +.09(ns)   +.17(.01)    
Remote           +.04(ns)   +.18(ns)

OPRC's additionally controlled for:
- duration of living in residence
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dOPRC=+
                 Males     Females   
Major cities     ----------------reference     
Inner regional   -.05(ns)   +.04(ns)    
Outer regional   +.05(ns)   +.13(.1)    
Remote           +.08(ns)   +.28(.05)

OPRC's additionally controlled for:
- relative income
instead of:
- duration of living in residence


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-SLW-u-sq-n-11-dSelfreport on single question:

All things considered, how satisfied are you with your life?
Again, pick a number between 0 and 10 to indicate how satisfied you are.
0 totally dissatisfied
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 totally satisfied


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
OPRCORDERED PROBIT REGRESSION COEFFICIENT
Statistic: Ordered probit regression coefficient
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: ordered responses
Theoretical range: unlimited

OPRC > 0 A one unit increase in the independent variable corresponds to a higher probability of responding in the highest category of the dependent variable and to a lower probability of responding in the lowest category of the dependent variable.

OLRC< 0 A one unit increase in the independent variable corresponds to a lower probability of responding in the highest category of the dependent variable and to a higher probability of responding in the lowest category of the dependent variable.

OLRC = 0 No relationship between the independent and dependent variable..

Remarks:
The interpretation for the intermediate categories of the dependent variable are ambiguous. It is advised to use marginal effects..
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl