Correlational finding on Happiness and PERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION
Subject code: P04

StudyLowenthal & Chiriboga (1973): study US 1969
TitleSocial Stress and Adaptation. Toward a Life-Course Perspective.
SourceEisdorfer, C.; Lawton, M.P; Eds.: "Psychology of Adult Development and Aging", American Psychological Association, Washington DC, USA, 281 - 310
DOIDOI: 10.1037/10044-011
PublicPeople in transition, metropolis, USA, 1969
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =216

Correlate
Author's labelMental health: complexity
Page in Source 291/292
Our classificationPERSONALITY: CURRENT ORGANIZATION, code P04
Operationalization
Resource-deficit configuration: the high/high 
combination is the most "complex", the low/low 
combination the most "simple". 
A. Resources (aspects of positive mental health)
   13 characteristics, such as:
   - familial mutuality
   - insight
   - competence
   - self-satisfaction, etc.
   rated on the basis of an interview protocol.
B. Deficits (aspects of negative mental health): 
   5 ratings of mental impairment based on scores on a 
symptom inventory and analysis of the interview 
protocol.

Both resource level and deficit levels were devided in 
three categories: high, middle, low. This allowed nine 
combinations:
9:  high/high
*: high/middle
:
:
1: low/low

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-aSNR=+
Resource/deficit combinations in order of 
happiness: most happy:           medium/low
           second happy:         high/low
           third happy:          low/low
           least happy(ninth):   medium/medium

Resource/deficit combinations characteristic of 
the happiest among:
     high school seniors         high/high
     newly weds                  medium/low
     middle-aged parents         medium/low
     preretirees                 low/low 

The correspondence of happiness and "complexity" 
in mental health declines with age.


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-aSelfreport on 11 questions:

"During the past few weeks, did you ever feel.....?"
A angry
B bored
C could not get going
D depressed
E lonely
F too busy
G uneasy
H exited
I on top of the world
J pleased
K proud

Answer options and scoring:
- yes = 1
- no = 0

Positive Affect Score (PAS): summed scores on H, I, J, K
Negative Affect Score (NAS): summed scores A, B, C, D, E, F, G
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS

Possible range: -7 to +5

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale' (modified version)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
SNRStatistic Not Reported
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl