Correlational finding on Happiness and Degree of restriction
Subject code: H14ac01

StudyMoon & Mikami (2007): study JP 2004
TitleDifference in subjective Well-being between ethnic Korean and Japanese elderly Residents in an Urban Community in Japan.
SourceGeriatrics and Gerontology International, 2007, Vol. 7, 371 - 379
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1447-0594.2007.00427.x
Public65+aged, ethnic Korean naturalized as Japanese and Japanese, Japan, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21.7%
Respondents N =425

Correlate
Author's labelBasic ADL
Page in Source 377, 379
Our classificationDegree of restriction, code H14ac01
Operationalization
Basic ADL (Activities of Daily Living):
a: Walking
b: Ascending and descending stairs
c: Eating
d: Dressing
e: Bathing
f: Grooming
g: Toileting 

Each subject rated their independence with regard to 
aforementioned activities on a scale between 3 and 0: 
3: Completely independent
2: Needs some help
1: Needs much help
0: Completely dependent
Error EstimatesCronbach's alpha is 0.93

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-ar=+.25 p < .001
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-aBeta=+.01 ns
Beta is controlled for: 
- age
- ethnicity
- gender
- literacy
- living alone
- absence of 'sense of purpose in life'
- public assistance
- pension 
- public assistance
- depression
- history of lifestyle related disease


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-aSelfreport on single question:

Write any number between 0 and 100 that describes your quality of life
100 perfect
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0 might as well be dead


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl