Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: H13ac04a

StudyMoon & Mikami (2007): study JP 2004
TitleDifference in subjective Well-being between ethnic Korean and Japanese elderly Residents in an Urban Community in Japan.
SourceGeriatrics and Gerontology International, 2007, Vol. 7, 371 - 379
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1447-0594.2007.00427.x
Public65+aged, ethnic Korean naturalized as Japanese and Japanese, Japan, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21.7%
Respondents N =425

Correlate
Author's labelGDS
Page in Source 377, 379
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code H13ac04a
Operationalization
Depression status was measured by the short version of 
Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15):
Choose the best answer for how you have felt over the 
past week: 
a: Are you basically satisfied with your life? 
b: Have you dropped many of your activities and 
interests? 
c: Do you feel that your life is empty? 
d: Do you often get bored? 
e: Are you in good spirits most of the time? 
f: Are you afraid that something bad is going to happen 
to you? 
g: Do you feel happy most of the time? 
h: Do you often feel helpless? 
i: Do you prefer to stay at home, rather than going out 
and doing new things?
j: Do you feel you have more problems with memory than 
most? 
k: Do you think it is wonderful to be alive now?
l: Do you feel pretty worthless the way you are now? 
m: Do you feel full of energy? 
n: Do you feel that your situation is hopeless?
o: Do you think that most people are better off than 
you are? 

Classified as:
1:6-9 mild depression
2:10 or more severe depression

Rated:
1: yes
0: no
Error EstimatesCronbach's alpha is 0.87

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-ar=-.06 p < .001
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-aBeta=-.55 p < .001
Beta controlled for:
- age
- gender
- literacy
- living alone
- absence of 'sense of purpose in life'
- pension
- public assistance
- performance status (ADL)
- history of lifestyle related disease


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-aSelfreport on single question:

Write any number between 0 and 100 that describes your quality of life
100 perfect
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0 might as well be dead


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl