Correlational finding on Happiness and Later source of income
Subject code: I01aa03c

StudyMoon & Mikami (2007): study JP 2004
TitleDifference in subjective Well-being between ethnic Korean and Japanese elderly Residents in an Urban Community in Japan.
SourceGeriatrics and Gerontology International, 2007, Vol. 7, 371 - 379
DOIDOI:10.1111/j.1447-0594.2007.00427.x
Public65+aged, ethnic Korean naturalized as Japanese and Japanese, Japan, 2005
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response21.7%
Respondents N =425

Correlate
Author's labelPublic Assistance
Page in Source 377, 379
Our classificationLater source of income, code I01aa03c
Operationalization
Self report on receiving public assistance (vs not). 
Text is not reported.
1: Yes
0: No
Remarks
Public Assistance refers to financial and medical 
assistance provided by the Japanese Government to those 
who meet the criteria of need under Japanese welfare 
laws.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-ar=-.17 p < .01
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-aBeta=-.09 p < .10
Beta controlled for:
- ethnicity
- age
- gender
- literacy
- living alone
- absence of 'sense of purpose in life'
- pension
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-aBeta=-.11 p < .05
Beta additionally controlled for:
- depression
- performance status (ADL)
- history of lifestyle related disease


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-QOL-u-sq-n-101-aSelfreport on single question:

Write any number between 0 and 100 that describes your quality of life
100 perfect
95
90
85
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0 might as well be dead


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl