Correlational finding on Happiness and Services
Subject code: C10ab04e

StudyCheung et al. (2005): study HK 2001
TitleQuality of Life in Older Adults: Benefits from Caring Services in Hong Kong.
SourceSocial Indicators Research, 2005, Vol. 71, 29 1- 334
PublicElderly, Hong Kong, 2001
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Respondents N =3000

Author's labelUse of care facilities
Page in Source 310, 319-320, 324
Our classificationServices, code C10ab04e
Self report on current use and usage frequency of 
various care facilities:
a: None 
b: Social center
c: Multiservice center
d: Day care center
e: Home help
f: Hostel
g: Nursing home

Observed Relation with Happiness
Non users             M=64.2 SD=21.6
Users of
-Social center        M=65.2 SD=21.7
-Multiservice center  M=66.4 SD=21.7
-Day care center      M=62.1 SD=25.0
-Home help            M=58.7 SD=23.6
-Hostel               M=72.6 SD=20.2
-Nursing home         M=67.7 SD=22.8
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-aAoV=14.7 ns
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=-0.1 ns
USAGE of (vs non-usage)
-Social center
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=+0.3 ns
-Multiservice center
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=+0.5 p < .01
-Multiservice center
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=-1.4 ns
-Day care center
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=-0.6 ns
-Home help
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=+3.4 ns
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=-0.8 ns
-Nursing home

B's controlled for:
-reception of public welfare
-religious faith
-living arrangement
-marital status
-quality of life in the past years
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=+0.3 p < .01
CUMULATIVE USE of (per year
-Social center
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=+0.6 ns
-Day care center
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=+0.1 ns
-Home help
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=+40 p < .01
-home care
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=-0.3 ns
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-ab=-0.9 ns
-nursing home

B is controlled for:
-reception of public welfare
-religious faith
-living arrangement
-marital status
-quality of life in the past years

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-QOL-c-sq-ol-101-aSelfreport on single question:

.. Global life quality.. (full text not reported)
0 lowest quality
100 highest quality

Rated on line scale with 10 point demarcations between 0 and 100

Name: Spitzer Uniscale

Appendix 2: Statistics used
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Theoretical range: unlimited

b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average.
B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average.
B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate.
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.