Correlational finding on Happiness and Hourly pay (vs salary)
Subject code: W04ab20

StudyDeVoe & Pfeffer (2009): study US 1987
TitleWhen Is Happiness About How Much You Earn? The Effect of Hourly Payment on the Money-Happiness Connection.
SourcePersonality and Social Psychology Bulliten, 2009, Vol. 12, 1602 - 1618
DOIDOI:10.1177/0146167209346304
PublicWorking people, USA, 1987 - 1988
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =13007

Correlate
Author's labelHourly status
Page in Source 1609
Our classificationHourly pay (vs salary), code W04ab20
Operationalization
Self report on the question:
How are you paid in your main job?
0: salaried
1: paid by the hour
Observed distributionM = 0.59, SD = 0.49

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-br=-.07 p < .01
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bBeta=-.06 p < .001
Beta controlled for
- hourly status (salaried vs paid by the hour)
- occupation
- age
- gender
- education 
- marital status
- having children


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-c-sq-n-7-bSelfreport on single question:

Next are some questions about how you see yourself and your life. Taking all things together, how would you say things are these days?
1 very unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7 very happy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl