Subject code: S02ab

Study | Laxer (1964): study US 1960 |

Title | Relation of Real Self-Rating to Mood and Blame and Their Interaction in Depression. |

Source | Journal of Consulting Psychology, 1964, Vol. 28, 538 - 546 |

Public | Psychiatric patients, USA, 196? |

Sample | Non-probability purposive sample |

Non-Response | 3 |

Respondents N = | 72 |

Correlate | |

Author's label | Self blame |

Our classification | Current self-characterization, code S02ab |

Operationalization | Self rating of "What I am really like" on a semantic differential scale a clear-hazy b pleasant-unpleasant c valuable-worthless d strong-weak e deep=-shallow f hard-soft g hot-cold i fast-slow j active-passive |

Observed distribution | Range: 16.67 to 7.75 |

Observed Relation with Happiness | ||

Happiness Measure | Statistics | Elaboration/Remarks |

A-AOL-md-sq-v-10-a | AoV=+ p < .005 | Evaluative factor (a, b, c: High self-evaluation goes with better mood Only among self-blaming patients, not among other-blaming patients. |

A-AOL-md-sq-v-10-a | r=+ p < .05 | |

A-AOL-md-sq-v-10-a | AoV=+ p < .025 | Potency factor (d,e,f) High self-evaluation goes with better mood More so among high self-blaming patients than among other-blaming patients. |

A-AOL-md-sq-v-10-a | r=+ p < .05 | |

A-AOL-md-sq-v-10-a | AoV= ns | Activity factor (g,i,j) Correlation not reported, apparently ns |

A-AOL-md-sq-v-10-a | r=+ p < .05 |

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

Code | Full Text |

A-AOL-md-sq-v-10-a | Selfreport on single question: "......overall mood of the past day ......" ( full question not reported.) 10 Complete elation, rapturous joy and soaring ecstasy 9 Very elated and in very high spirits. Tremendous delight and buoyancy 8 Elated and in high spirits 7 Feeling very good and cheerful 6 Feeling pretty good , "OK" 5 Feeling a little bit low. Just so-so 4 Spirits low and somewhat "blue" 3 Depressed and feeling very low. Definitely "blue" 2 Tremendously depressed. Feeling terrible, really miserable, "just awful" 1 Utter depression and gloom. Completely down. All is black and leaden. Wish it were all over. Name: Wessman & Ricks' `Elation - Depression Scale' |

Appendix 2: Statistics used

Symbol | Explanation |

AoV | ANALYSIS of VARIANCE (ANOVA) Type: statistical procedure Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric. In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value. NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS) |

r | PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient') Type: test statistic. Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric Range: [-1; +1] Meaning: r = 0 « no correlation , r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values. |

Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.

http://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl