Correlational finding on Happiness and International life style
Subject code: L09ab02c

StudyGilbert & Abdullah (2002): study GB 2000
TitleA Study of the Impact of the Expectation of a Holiday on an Individual 's Sense of Wellbeing.
SourceJournal of Vacation Marketing, 2002, Vol. 8, 353 - 361
PublicTourists, UK, 2000
SampleNon-probability purposive-quota sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =604

Correlate
Author's labelHoliday making
Page in Source 357
Our classificationInternational life style, code L09ab02c
Operationalization
Reponse to question about holidays: Having taking at 
least four nights or more holiday outside the UK
1 yes: holiday makers
0 no : non-holiday makers

Non-holidaymakers control group was matched on basis of 
occupation and age
Remarks
Comparison of those waiting to go on holiday and those 
not waiting to go on holiday (holidaymakers vs. 
Non-holidaymakers)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-u-sqr-n-9-aDM=+ p < .05
Holidaymakers      M = 6,99  SD = 1,23
Non-holidaymakers  M = 6,68  SD = 1,52
- difference:         +0,31      -0,29
O-HL-u-sqr-n-9-aMW= p < .05
A-BK-cm-mq-n-9-aDM=+ p < .01
Holidaymakers      M = 29,30  SD = 22,77
Non-holidaymakers  M = 23,85  SD = 23,43
- difference:          +5,45       -0,66
A-BK-cm-mq-n-9-aMW= p < .01


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BK-cm-mq-n-9-aSelfreport on 20 questions

Over the past few week I have felt
A optimistic
B withdrawn
C enthusiastic
D good natured
E discontented
F confused
G confident
H tense
I understood
J insignificant
K satisfied
L lonely
M free-and-easy
N clear headed
O helpless
P impatient
Q usefull
R depressed
S loving
T hopeless


Rated: 1 not at all to 9 all the time

Computation: (A+C=D+G+I+K+M+N+Q+S) - (B+E+F+H+J+L+O+P+R+T)

Name: Kamman's Affectometer 2, 20 item ABS version
O-HL-u-sqr-n-9-aSelfrreport on single question asked twice:

How do you feel about your life as a whole?
1 tremendously unhappy
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9 tremendoesly happy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
MWWILCOXON (MANN-WHITNEY) TWO SAMPLE TEST
Type: statistical procedure.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: ordinal
Symbol test statistic: W (Wilcoxon) or U (Mann-Whitney).
Relationship: W = U + n1(n1 + 1), where n1 and n2 = Ne - n1 , while n1 <= n2, are the sizes of the two samples.
Range U [ 0; n1n2 ] and W [ n1(n1 + 1); n1(n1+ 2n2 +1].

Meaning:
At the limit values of U and W there is the strongest possible association.
U = n1n2 <-> W = n1(Ne + 1) no association.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl