Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H04ab01b

StudyFreeman et al. (1986): study US 1979
TitleAdolescence and its Recollections: Toward an Interpretive Model of Development.
SourceMerrill-Palmer Quarterly, 1986, Vol. 32, 267 - 185
PublicAdolescents, USA followed 2 years, 1979-1981
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =27

Correlate
Author's labelChanges in immediate experience from T1 to T2.
Page in Source 174
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H04ab01b
Operationalization
Self report of momentary affect, repeated every 2 hours 
during two weeks

Lead question not reported
A  Happy vs Sad
B  Friendly vs Angry
C  Cheerful vs Irritable
D  Sociable  vs Lonely

Rated on 7 step numerical scale (semantic 
differential).

Average mood as assessed using Experience Sampling 
during 2 weeks at
T1: 1979
T2: 1981
Remarks
Average reports per respondent: 31.

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ASA-mi-mqr-n-7-bDM=-.10
T1 average affect:   M= 4,83
T2 average affect:   M= 4,73
-difference            -0,10
A-ASA-mi-mqr-n-7-br=+.77 p < .00
Correlation between T1 and T2.
A-ASA-mi-mqr-n-7-bt.=-1,4
A-ASA-mi-mqr-n-7-b
While there was virtually no difference in the 
reported quality of immediate experience over the 
2-year span, respondents believed a strongly 
positive change to have taken place.


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-ASA-mi-mqr-n-7-bSelf report of momentary affect, repeated every 2 hours during two weeks

Lead question not reported
A Happy vs Sad
B Friendly vs Angry
C Cheerful vs Irritable
D Sociable vs Lonely

Rated on 7 step numerical scale (semantic differential)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
DMDIFFERENCE of MEANS
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
t.t-STATISTIC (Student's t-statistic)
Type: symmetric standard test statistic.
One parameter: n (= number of degrees of freedom (df) ; range df: [1; + infinite)
Range for t: unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is the ratio of a difference between a statistic and its expected value under the null hypothesis and its (estimated) standard error with n degrees of freedom.
The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl