Correlational finding on Happiness and Independent
Subject code: P05bm

StudyRafanelli et al. (2000): study IT 1995
TitleRating Well-Being and Distress.
SourceStress Medicine, 2000, Vol. 16, 55 - 61
PublicRemitted mental out-patients and controls, Italy, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Respondents N =40

Author's labelAutonomy
Page in Source 58, 59
Our classificationIndependent, code P05bm
Selfreport on 11 questions:
a: My decisions are not usually influenced by what 
everyone else is doing
b: I have confidence in my opnions even if they are 
contrary to the general consensus
c: I have confidence in my own opnions, even if they 
are different from the way most other people think
d: I tend to worry about what other people think of me
e: I often change my mind about decisions if my friend 
or family disagree
f: I am not afraid to voice my opinions, even when they 
are in opposition to the opinions of most people
g: Being happy with myself is more important to me than 
having others approve of me
h: It's difficult for me to voice my opinions on 
controversal matters
i: I tend to be influenced by people with strong 
j: I judge myself by what I think is important, not by 
what others think is important
k: I judge myself by what I think is important, not by 
the values of what others think is important

Rated on a 6-point numerical scale: (1= strongly 
disagree to 6= strongly agree)
Observed distributionPatients: M= 7,5; SD=4,1 Controls: M=10,8; SD=2,2
Ryff's Scales of Psychological Well-Being (PWB), 
subscale Autonomy

Observed Relation with Happiness
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-ar=+.01 ns
remitted mental out-patients
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-ar=-.10 ns
healthy control group

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
M-FH-cw-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 6 questions

Please describe how you have felt during THE PAST WEEK and make a small check mark. For example, the word nervous is on the first line. If you have felt nervous, check YES, if you have not felt nervous check NO
A Cheerfull
B Happy
C Feeling well
D Contented
E Enjoying yourself
F Looking forward to the future

1 yes
0 no

Name: Contentment subscale in Kellner's Symptom Questionnaire (SQ).
Version: Past Week.

Appendix 2: Statistics used
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.