Correlational finding on Happiness and Longevity (assessed in follow up)
Subject code: H14aa03b

StudyParker et al. (1992): study SE 1986
TitlePredictors of Mortality for the Oldest Old. A 4-Year Follow-Up of Community-Based Elderly in Sweden.
SourceArchives of Gerontology and Geriatics, 1992, Vol. 14, 227 - 237
Public75+ aged, rural community, Sweden, followed 4 years, 1986-1990
SampleProbability stratified sample
Non-Response4%
Respondents N =421

Correlate
Author's labelSurvival
Page in Source 232,234,235
Our classificationLongevity (assessed in follow up), code H14aa03b
Operationalization
A: % still alive at T2
B: odds of being dead at T2
Observed distribution% survived: 75-84 aged 74%, 85+ aged 57%
Remarks
Happiness assessed at T1 (1986).
Survival assessed at T2, 4 years later

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-eD%=-
T1 Happiness by % still alive at T2 (4 years 
later)

- % still alive at T2 among 75-84 aged at T1
  - very happy:       86%
  - fairly happy      68%
  - so-so or unhappy: 58%
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-eD%=-
- % still alive at T2 among 85+ aged at T1
  - very happy:       66%
  - fairly happy      51%
  - so-so or unhappy: 42%
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-eOR=2.9 p < .05
Odds of being dead at T2 of less than very happy 
at T1

Among 75-84 aged at T1: CI95 [1.2-7.0]
OR controled for
- T1 mobility index
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-eOR=3.0 p < .05
Among 75-84 aged at T1: CI95 [1.3-7.1]
OR additionally controled for;
- T1 nurse evaluation of health
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-eOR= ns
No significant effect among 85+ aged.


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-g-sq-v-5-eSelfreport on single question:

How happy are you with life in general?
5 very happy
4 fairly happy
3 so-so
2 unhappy
1 very unhappy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
D%DIFFERENCE in PERCENTAGES
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate level: dichotomous, but nominal or ordinal theoretically possible as well. Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: [-100; +100]

Meaning: the difference of the percentages happy people at two correlate levels.
ORODDS RATIO
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness level: dichotomous
Range: nonnegative unlimited

Meaning:
OR = 1 no association at all;
OR = 0 or infinite at least one level of the correlate allows an error-free prediction of the happiness.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl