Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: H13ac04a

StudyJoseph et al. (1996): study GB 1995
TitleConvergent Validity of the Depression - Happiness Scale with Measures of Depression.
SourceJournal of Clinical Psychology, 1996, Vol. 52, 551 - 554
Public18-48-aged students, Ulster, 1995
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelDepression (SDS)
Page in Source 552-553
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code H13ac04a
Operationalization
Self-report on 20 questions: 
1. I feel down-hearted and blue          
2. Morning is when I feel the best          
3. I have crying spells or feel like it         
4. I have trouble sleeping at night         
5. I eat as much as I used to         
6. I still enjoy sex         
7. I notice that I am losing weight          
8. I have trouble with constipation         
9. My heart beats faster than usual          
10. I get tired for no reason         
11. My mind is as clear as it used to be         
12. I find it easy to do the things I used to         
13. I am restless and can't keep still         
14. I feel hopeful about the future          
15. I am more irritable than usual          
16. I find it easy to make decisions          
17. I feel that I am useful and needed         
18. My life is pretty full         
19. I feel that others would be better off if I were 
dead         
20. I still enjoy the things I used to do

Rated: a little of the time, some of the time, good 
part of the time, most of the time.
Observed distributionm 38,01 SD 8,47 Range 21-59
Error EstimatesAlpha 0.85
Remarks
Zung (1965) Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS).

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.81 p < .001


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-aSelfreport on 25 questions:

A number of statements that people have used to describe how they feel are given below. Read each one and circle the number that best describes how frequently that statement was true for you in the past seven days, including today. Some statements describe positive feelings and some describe negative feelings. You may have experienced both positive and negative feelings at different times in the past week.
A I felt sad
B I felt I had failed as a person
C I felt dissatisfied with my life
D I felt mentally alert
E I felt disappointed with myself
F I felt cheerful
G I felt life wasn't worth living
H I felt satisfied with my life
I I felt healthy
J I felt life crying
K I felt I had been successful
L I felt happy
M I felt I couldn't make decisions
N I felt unattractive
O I felt optimistic about the future
P I felt life was rewording
Q I felt cheerless
R I felt life has a purpose
S I felt too tired to do anything
T I felt pleased with the way I am
U I felt lethargic
V I found it easy to make decisions
W I felt life was enjoyable
X I felt life was meaningless
Y I felt run down

Answer options:
0 never
1 rarely
2 sometimes
3 often

Negative affect score (NAS): A, B, C, E, G, J, M, N, Q, S, U, X, Y.
Positive affect score (PAS): D, F, H, I, K, L, O, P, R, T, V, W.
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS + 39

Name: McGreal & Joseph 'Depression-Happiness Scale' (DHS)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl