Correlational finding on Happiness and Depressive (f31-33)
Subject code: H13ac04a

StudyJoseph et al. (1996): study GB 1995
TitleConvergent Validity of the Depression - Happiness Scale with Measures of Depression.
SourceJournal of Clinical Psychology, 1996, Vol. 52, 551 - 554
Public18-48-aged students, Ulster, 1995
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =194

Correlate
Author's labelDepression (BDI)
Page in Source 552-553
Our classificationDepressive (f31-33), code H13ac04a
Operationalization
Self-report on 21 questions.
A: I am sad
B: I am afraid of the future
C: I failed as a person
D: I am not happy
E: I feel guilty
F: I have being punished
G: I feel disapointed
H: I am a bad person
I: I think often over a suicide
J: I am crying very often
K: I feel get annoyed
L: I have lack of interest in other persons
M: I have lack of dississsion
N: I am not good-looking
O: I dislike work
P: I sleep not well
Q: I am fatigue
R: I have a lack of appetite
S: Ihave lost weight
T: I am afraid of my health
U: I have lack of interst in sex

Rated: Never (0); Rarely (1); Sometimes(2); Often (3)
indicating the severity of symptoms.
Observed distributionM 7.33 SD 6.54 Range 0-29
Error EstimatesAlpha .85
Remarks
Beck, Ward, Mendelsohn, Mock, & Erbaugh (1961); Beck 
Depression Inventory (BDI)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-ar=-.75 p < .001


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BMc-cw-mq-v-4-aSelfreport on 25 questions:

A number of statements that people have used to describe how they feel are given below. Read each one and circle the number that best describes how frequently that statement was true for you in the past seven days, including today. Some statements describe positive feelings and some describe negative feelings. You may have experienced both positive and negative feelings at different times in the past week.
A I felt sad
B I felt I had failed as a person
C I felt dissatisfied with my life
D I felt mentally alert
E I felt disappointed with myself
F I felt cheerful
G I felt life wasn't worth living
H I felt satisfied with my life
I I felt healthy
J I felt life crying
K I felt I had been successful
L I felt happy
M I felt I couldn't make decisions
N I felt unattractive
O I felt optimistic about the future
P I felt life was rewording
Q I felt cheerless
R I felt life has a purpose
S I felt too tired to do anything
T I felt pleased with the way I am
U I felt lethargic
V I found it easy to make decisions
W I felt life was enjoyable
X I felt life was meaningless
Y I felt run down

Answer options:
0 never
1 rarely
2 sometimes
3 often

Negative affect score (NAS): A, B, C, E, G, J, M, N, Q, S, U, X, Y.
Positive affect score (PAS): D, F, H, I, K, L, O, P, R, T, V, W.
Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS - NAS + 39

Name: McGreal & Joseph 'Depression-Happiness Scale' (DHS)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl