Correlational finding on Happiness and Ethnic status in the Netherlands
Subject code: E04ab03l

StudyCornelisse-Vermaat (2005): study NL 2001
TitleHousehold Production, Health and Happiness. A Comparison of the Native Dutch and Non-Western Immigrants in the Netherlands.
SourcePhD Thesis, University of Wageningen, 2005, Netherlands
Public18+ aged, general public, The Netherlands, 2001
SampleProbability stratified sample
Respondents N =2551

Author's labelEthnic groups
Page in Source 142 + 147
Our classificationEthnic status in the Netherlands, code E04ab03l
a. Native Dutch
b. Surinamese/Antilleans
c. Moroccans
d. Turks
Observed distributiona: 27,5%; b: 27,5%; c:17,6%; d: 27,4%

Observed Relation with Happiness
Native Dutch:      Mean 7,56
 Antilleans:       Mean 7,35 
-Maroccans:        Mean 7,41 
-Turks:            Mean 7,05
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aAoV= p < .01
-Native Dutch:      Mean 7,58
 Antilleans:        Mean 7,37
-Morroccans:        Mean 7,37
-Turks:             Mean 7,23
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aAoV= p < .01
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.06 p < .05
Surinames/Antilleans (vs. native Dutch)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.03 ns
Maroccans (vs. native Dutch)
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aBeta=-.09 p < .01
Turks (vs.native Dutch)

Beta's controlled for
-self-reported health
-marital status
-having children
-working hours
-household income
-total outsourcing expenditures
-total household and caretime
-living in urbanm area
-religious affiliation

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
C-BW-c-sq-l-11-aSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder represents the best possible life for you and the bottom represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel you personally stand at the present time?
[ 10 ] best possible life
[ 9 ]
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life

Preceded by 1) open questions about what the respondent imagines as the best possible life and the worst possible life. 2) ratings on the ladder of one's life five years ago and where on the ladder one expects to stand five years from now.

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (original)

Appendix 2: Statistics used
Type: statistical procedure
Measurement level: Correlate(s): nominal, Happiness: metric.
In an ANOVA, the total happiness variability, expressed as the sum of squares, is split into two or more parts, each of which is assigned to a source of variability. At least one of those sources is the variability of the correlate, in case there is only one, and always one other is the residual variability, which includes all unspecified influences on the happiness variable. Each sum of squares has its own number of degrees of freedom (df), which sum up to Ne -1 for the total variability. If a sum of squares (SS) is divided by its own number of df, a mean square (MS) is obtained. The ratio of two correctly selected mean squares has an F-distribution under the hypothesis that the corresponding association has a zero-value.

NOTE: A significantly high F-value only indicates that, in case of a single correlate, the largest of the c mean values is systematically larger than the smallest one. Conclusions about the other pairs of means require the application of a Multiple Comparisons Procedure (see e.g. BONFERRONI's MULTIPLE COMPARISON TEST, DUNCAN's MULTIPLE RANGE TEST or STUDENT-NEWMAN-KEULS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
Type: descriptive statistic only.
Measurement level: Correlate: dichotomous, Happiness: metric
Range: depending on the happiness rating scale of the author; range symmetric about zero.

Meaning: the difference of the mean happiness, as measured on the author's rating scale, between the two correlate levels.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.