Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier mental health
Subject code: H13aa01

StudyCosta & McCrae (1980): study US 1965
TitleInfluence of Extraversion and Neuroticism on Subjective Well-Being: Happy and Unhappy People.
SourceJournal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1980, Vol. 38, 668 - 678
Public25-75 aged white males (largely veterans), followed 10 years, USA, 1965-76
Respondents N =234

Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 675
Our classificationEarlier mental health, code H13aa01
Cattell (1973) Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire
Assessed at T1 (10 years ago)

Observed Relation with Happiness
A-BB-cy-mq-v-2-ar=-.30 p < .001
Hedonic level assessed at T2
NAS: r = +.39  (001)
PAS: r = -.08  ns

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BB-cy-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on10 questions asked 4 times a year at 3 month intervals.

"During the past few weeks, did you ever feel.....?" (yes/no)
A Particularly exited, or interested in something?
B So restless that you could not sit long in a chair?
C Proud because someone complimented you on something you had done?
D Very lonely or remote from people?
E Pleased about having accomplished something?
F Bored?
G On top of the world?
H Depressed?
I That things were going your way?
J Upset because someone critized you?

Scoring: yes = 1, no is = 0
-Positive Affect Score (PAS): A+C+E+G+I
-Negative Affect Score (NAS): B+D+F+H+J
-Affect Balance Score (ABS): PAS minus NAS
Possible: range: -5 to +5

Name: Bradburn's `Affect Balance Scale'

Appendix 2: Statistics used
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.