Correlational finding on Happiness and SELF-IMAGE
Subject code: S02

StudySheldon & Hoon (2006): study ZZ East-West pairs 2001
TitleThe Multiple Determination of Well-Being: Independent Effects of Positive Traits, Needs, Goals, Selves, Social Support, and Cultural Contexts.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2007, Vol. 8, 565 - 592
DOIDOI:10.1007/210902-006-9031-4
PublicUniversity students, USA and Singapore, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Non-Response6%
Respondents N =533

Correlate
Author's labelself-esteem
Page in Source 576, 581, 582
Our classificationSELF-IMAGE, code S02
Operationalization
Selfreport on 10 questions, f.e. 
"I take a positive attitude toward myself"

Rated on a 7-point scale
Observed distributionAll M = 5.26, SD = 1.06; USA M = 5.39; Singapore M = 5.09
Remarks
10-item Rosenberg (1965) self-esteem measure

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO---mq-*-124-aBeta=+.60 p < .01
All

Beta controlled for
- best/worst possible self
M-AO---mq-*-124-aBeta=+.23 p < .01
Beta controlled for
- Cultural membership
- Gender
- Competence need (self rated satisfaction)
- Neuroticism
- Goal-progress (Selfreport on sucess at most 
important personal goals)
- Social support (Selfreport on satisfaction with 
overall social support)
M-AO---mq-*-124-aBeta=+.18 p < .01
UAS
M-AO---mq-*-124-aBeta=+.33 p < .01
Singapore

Beta controlled for
- Gender
- Competence need satisfaction
- Neuroticism
- goal-progress
- Social support


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
M-AO---mq-*-124-aSelfreport on 25 questions:

A Using the 1-7 scale below, indicate your agreement with each of the items by placing the appropriate number on the line preceding that item. Please be open and honest in your responding.
a In most ways my life is close to ideal
b The conditions of my life are excellent
c I am satisfied with my life
d So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
e If I could live my life over again, I would change nothing
Answers rated:
7 strongly agree
6 agree
5 slightly agree
4 neither agree nor disagree
3 slightly disagree
2 disagree
1 strongly disagree
Name: Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS)

B Indicate to what extend you feel this way in general in your life:
a nervous
b distressed
c afraid
d jittery
e irritable
f upset
g scared
h exiled
i ashamed
j guilty
k hostile
l active
m determined
n inspired
o enthusiastic
p alert
q attentive
r proud
s strong
t interested
Answer options:
1 very slightly or not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 extremely
Affect Balance Score (ABS): (a-k) - (l-t) Name: Watson's PANAS

Computation: A+B


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl