Correlational finding on Happiness and Emotional
Subject code: P05ay

StudySheldon & Hoon (2006): study ZZ East-West pairs 2001
TitleThe Multiple Determination of Well-Being: Independent Effects of Positive Traits, Needs, Goals, Selves, Social Support, and Cultural Contexts.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2007, Vol. 8, 565 - 592
PublicUniversity students, USA and Singapore, 200?
SampleNon-probability chunk sample
Respondents N =533

Author's labelNeuroticism
Page in Source 575, 581, 582
Our classificationEmotional, code P05ay
Selfreport on the extent to which they agree on 5 
questions, f.e.
- anxious, easily upset
- calm, emotionally stable

Rated 1 (disagree strongly) to 7 (agree strongly)

Measures of the two different scales were standardized 
and averaged
Observed distributionNeuroticism M = 3.30, SD = 1.07; USA M = 3.34, Singapore M = 3.27
Error Estimates? < .75
Subscale of TIPI (Ten Item Personality Inventory, 
Gosling et al., 2003), 2 items
Subscale of STA (single trait adjectives, Sheldon et 
al., 1997), 3 items (not reported)

Observed Relation with Happiness
M-AO---mq-*-124-aBeta=-.43 p < .01
Beta controlled for
- Extraversion
- Agreeableness
- Conscienciousness
- Openness
M-AO---mq-*-124-aBeta=-.27 p < .01
Beta controlled for
- cultural membership
- gender
- competence need (self rated satisfaction)
- goal progress (Selfreport on sucess at most 
important personal goals)
- self-esteem
- social support (Selfreport on satisfaction with 
overall social support)
M-AO---mq-*-124-aBeta=-.34 p < .01
M-AO---mq-*-124-aBeta=-.15 p < .01

Beta's controlled for
- gender
- competence need satisfaction
- goal progress
- self-esteem
- social support

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
M-AO---mq-*-124-aSelfreport on 25 questions:

A Using the 1-7 scale below, indicate your agreement with each of the items by placing the appropriate number on the line preceding that item. Please be open and honest in your responding.
a In most ways my life is close to ideal
b The conditions of my life are excellent
c I am satisfied with my life
d So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
e If I could live my life over again, I would change nothing
Answers rated:
7 strongly agree
6 agree
5 slightly agree
4 neither agree nor disagree
3 slightly disagree
2 disagree
1 strongly disagree
Name: Diener's Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS)

B Indicate to what extend you feel this way in general in your life:
a nervous
b distressed
c afraid
d jittery
e irritable
f upset
g scared
h exiled
i ashamed
j guilty
k hostile
l active
m determined
n inspired
o enthusiastic
p alert
q attentive
r proud
s strong
t interested
Answer options:
1 very slightly or not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 extremely
Affect Balance Score (ABS): (a-k) - (l-t) Name: Watson's PANAS

Computation: A+B

Appendix 2: Statistics used
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.