Correlational finding on Happiness and Extraverted
Subject code: P05az

StudyDemir & Weitekamp (2007): study US 2007
TitleI am So Happy Cause Today I Found My Friend: Friendship and Personality as Predictors of Happiness.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2007, Vol. 8, 181 - 211
DOIDOI:10,1007/s10902-006-9012-7
PublicUniversity students, USA, 2007
SampleNon-probability accidental sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =423

Correlate
Author's labelExtraversion
Page in Source 194, 192
Our classificationExtraverted, code P05az
Operationalization
Selfreport on 8 questions:
- is talkative
- is reserved
- is full of energy
- generates a lot of enthusiasm
- tends to be quiet
- has an assertive personality
- is sometimes shy, inhibited
- is outgoing, sociable

Rated 1 (disagree strongly) to 5 (agree strongly)
Observed distributionmean 3.44, SD 0.75
Error Estimates? = 0.82
Remarks
Extraversion scale of Big Five Inventory (BFI, John & 
Srivastava, 1999)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
M-AO-m-mq-v-5-ar=+.48 p < .05
M-AO-m-mq-v-5-aBeta=+.23 p < .06
Beta controlled for
- gender
- neuroticism
- agreeableness
- conscientiousness
- openness


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
M-AO-m-mq-v-5-aSelfreport on 25 questions

A 20-item PANAS
To what extend do you feel this way right now in your life?
Aa nervous
Ab distressed
Ac afraid
Ad jittery
Ae irritable
Af upset
Ag scared
Ah exiled
Ai ashamed
Aj guilty
Ak hostile
Al active
Am determined
An inspired
Ao enthusiastic
Ap alert
Aq attentive
Ar proud
As strong
At interested

B 5-item Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener)
Ba In most ways my life is close to ideal
Bb The conditions of my life are excellent
Bc I am satisfied with my life
Bd So far, I have gotten the important things I want in life
Be If I could live my life over, I would change nothing

Answer options:
1 not at all
2 a little
3 moderately
4 quite a bit
5 very much

Computation: (Aa +..Ak) - (Al+.. At) + (Ba+ …Be)


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 « no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 « no correlation ,
r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl