Correlational finding on Happiness and Past happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago)
Subject code: H04ab01b

StudyKivett (2000): study US 1976
TitleVery-Old Rural Adults: Functional Status and Social Support.
SourceJournal of Applied Gerontology, 2000, Vol. 19, 58 - 77
PublicVery old, rural area USA, followed 20 years, 1976-1997
SampleProbability multi-stage cluster sample
Non-Response> 10%
Respondents N =49

Author's labelChange life satisfaction
Page in Source 13 (table 1)
Our classificationPast happiness ( 1 to 10 years ago), code H04ab01b
Happiness assessed at
T1: 1976
T2: 1986
T3: 1989
T4: 1996/7
Survivors in 1996/7 of a follow-up of 418 65+ aged that 
started in 1976

Observed Relation with Happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caW=-2.1 p < .05
T1 to T3 change in happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-cat.=2.84 p < .01
T3 to T4 change in happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-cat.=2.07 p < .05
T1 to T4 change in happiness
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-cat.=3.97 p < .001
Negative W values denote a rise in happiness over 
time each of the time periods.

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
C-BW-c-sq-l-10-caSelfreport on single question:

Here is a picture of a ladder. Suppose we say that the top of the ladder (9) represents the best possible life for you and the bottom (0) represents the worst possible life for you. Where on the ladder do you feel personally stand at the present time?
[ 9 ] best possible life for you
[ 8 ]
[ 7 ]
[ 6 ]
[ 5 ]
[ 4 ]
[ 3 ]
[ 2 ]
[ 1 ]
[ 0 ] worst possible life for you

Name: Cantril's self anchoring ladder rating of life (adapted version)

Appendix 2: Statistics used
t.t-STATISTIC (Student's t-statistic)
Type: symmetric standard test statistic.
One parameter: n (= number of degrees of freedom (df) ; range df: [1; + infinite)
Range for t: unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is the ratio of a difference between a statistic and its expected value under the null hypothesis and its (estimated) standard error with n degrees of freedom.
The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics.
Type: test statistic
Seldom used in happiness research. See excerpted report for further reference.
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.