### Correlational finding on Happiness and OptimisticSubject code: P05ce

 Study Langeveld (1998): study NL 1992 Title Quality of Life in Adolescents with Migraine and Other Headaches. Source Thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam, 1998, Netherlands. ISNB 90 90 12 007 6 Public Secundary school pupils, Netherlands, 199? Sample Non-probability chunk sample Non-Response 3% Respondents N = 223

 Correlate Author's label Optimism about future Page in Source 39, 43,44 Our classification Optimistic, code P05ce Operationalization ```Selfreport on 3 questions about feelings in the last week - I thought that later everything will be fine - I thought that I will be happy in the future Rated on an 4-point numerical scale 0= rarely or never/not at all 1= sometimes/a little 2= often/quite a bit 3= very often or always/very much ``` Observed distribution M/nx=1.47; SD/nx=.78 (nx= number if items in the subscale) Error Estimates Alpha=.82

 Observed Relation with Happiness HappinessMeasure Statistics Elaboration/Remarks O-SLW-cw-sq-ol-11-a r=+.21 p < .001

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
 Code Full Text O-SLW-cw-sq-ol-11-a Selfreport on single question;How satisfied or unsatisfied were you last week with your life in general?Please answer this question below by drawing a cross on the line_________________________________________completely completelyScoring: mm on this 100 mm line

Appendix 2: Statistics used
 Symbol Explanation r PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')Type: test statistic.Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metricRange: [-1; +1]Meaning:r = 0 « no correlation ,r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, andr = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl