Subject code: F06ac

Study | Csikszentmihalyi & Hunter (2003): study US 1998 |

Title | Happiness in Everyday Life: the Uses of Experience Sampling. |

Source | Journal of Happiness Studies, 2003, Vol. 4, 185 - 199 |

DOI | DOI:10.1023/A:1024409732742 |

Public | Teenagers, USA, 199? |

Sample | Non-probability purposive sample |

Non-Response | |

Respondents N = | 828 |

Correlate | |

Author's label | Being alone |

Page in Source | 193 |

Our classification | Current contacts with friends, code F06ac |

Operationalization | % time in company when beeped 0: alone 1: in company of: a: teachers b: classmates c: friends |

Remarks | Participants were beeped at random moments eight times a day from 7:30 am to 10:30 pm for one week. At each beep they answered questions about: a: what activity they where doing on the moment b: whom they were with c: how they felt at that moment (various feelings, one of which happiness) |

Observed Relation with Happiness | ||

Happiness Measure | Statistics | Elaboration/Remarks |

A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-a | Beta=- p < .001 | Beta controlled for: - age - gender - SES |

A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-a | t.=-3.9 p < .001 | |

A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-a | b=-.01 p < .001 | Beta additionally controlled for: - % time in flow - % time in relaxation - % time reading/writing for fun - grade level in school |

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used

Code | Full Text |

A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-a | Selfreport on single question repeated several times a day. " .. mood .." Full lead question not reported 7 happy 6 5 4 3 2 1 sad |

Appendix 2: Statistics used

Symbol | Explanation |

b | REGRESSION COEFFICIENT (non-standardized) by LEAST SQUARES (OLS) Type: test statistic Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric Theoretical range: unlimited Meaning: b > 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating on average. B < 0 A higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating on average. B = 0 Not any correlation with the relevant correlate. |

Beta | STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS) Type: test statistic. Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric. Range: [-1 ; +1] Meaning: beta > 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average. beta < 0 « a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average. beta = 0 « no correlation. beta = + 1 or -1 « perfect correlation. |

t. | t-STATISTIC (Student's t-statistic) Type: symmetric standard test statistic. One parameter: n (= number of degrees of freedom (df) ; range df: [1; + infinite) Range for t: unlimited Meaning : the test statistic is the ratio of a difference between a statistic and its expected value under the null hypothesis and its (estimated) standard error with n degrees of freedom. The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics. |

Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.

https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl