Correlational finding on Happiness and Studying
Subject code: A02ac11

StudyCsikszentmihalyi & Hunter (2003): study US 1998
TitleHappiness in Everyday Life: the Uses of Experience Sampling.
SourceJournal of Happiness Studies, 2003, Vol. 4, 185 - 199
DOIDOI:10.1023/A:1024409732742
PublicTeenagers, USA, 199?
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response
Respondents N =828

Correlate
Author's labelSchool-related activity
Page in Source 193
Our classificationStudying, code A02ac11
Operationalization
% time doing school related activities when beeped
Remarks
Participants were beeped at random moments eight times 
a day from 7:30 am to 10:30 pm for one week. At each 
beep they answered questions about:
a: what activity they where doing on the moment
b: whom they were with 
c: how they felt at that moment (various feelings, one 
of which happiness)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aBeta=
Beta controlled for;
- age
- gender
- SES
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-at.=+2.3 p < .024

Average (trait) happiness is higher among 
teenagers who study more, though happiness of the 
moment (state) yends to be lower while studying 
than during most other activities


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-ARE-mi-sqr-n-7-aSelfreport on single question repeated several times a day.

" .. mood .."
Full lead question not reported
7 happy
6
5
4
3
2
1 sad


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
t.t-STATISTIC (Student's t-statistic)
Type: symmetric standard test statistic.
One parameter: n (= number of degrees of freedom (df) ; range df: [1; + infinite)
Range for t: unlimited

Meaning : the test statistic is the ratio of a difference between a statistic and its expected value under the null hypothesis and its (estimated) standard error with n degrees of freedom.
The critical values of its probability distribution are tabulated extensively in almost any textbook on Statistics.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl