Correlational finding on Happiness and Test-intelligence
Subject code: I03ab01

StudyWatson (1930): study US 1928
TitleHappiness Among Adult Students of Education.
SourceJournal of Educational Psychology, 1930, Vol. 21, 79 - 109
DOIdoi: 10.1037/h0070539
PublicGraduate students of education (teachers), Columbia University, USA, 192?
Sample
Non-Response-
Respondents N =388

Correlate
Author's labelIntelligence
Page in Source 88/89
Our classificationTest-intelligence, code I03ab01
Operationalization
Otis S-A test of mental ability

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HP-u-sq-v-10-ar=-.04 ns
Unaffected by sex
O-HL-g-oq-n-11-ar=-.04 ns
Males only
A-BW-g-mq-v-2-ar= - ns
Males   : r = -.03
Females : r = -.09


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
A-BW-g-mq-v-2-aSelfreport on 50 questions:

Below is a list of words and phrases. Check every term which you believe could fairly be applied to yourself in prevalent attitudes. (yes/no)

A Enthusiastic
B Morbid
C Disappointed
D Distressed
E Cheerful
F Prosperous
G Frivolous
H Troubled
I Annoyed
J Calm
K Miserable
L Thrilled
M Irritable
N Buoyant
O Joyful
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
AX

The total list contained fifty adjectives, half positive and half negative

Scoring:
yes = +1
no = -1

Summation: number of happy traits mentioned minus number of unhappy traits mentioned.

Possible range: - 50 to + 50
O-HL-g-oq-n-11-aSelfreport on open question:

Now write in your own words a sentence of two, something which you believe will most truly describe your own general happiness in life.

The answers were rated by three judges on a scale ranging from 0 to 10.
0 low
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 high
O-HP-u-sq-v-10-aSelfreport on single question:

"Among the following description arranged in miscellaneous order, choose the one which comes nearest to fitting you. None will be likely to fit exactly."
3 Finding life rather disappointing and disillusioning, cmfortable in many ways, moderately successful, but far from realizing the hopes of youth.
9 Cheerful, gay spirits most of the time. Occasionally bothered by something but can usually laugh it off.
8 Calm, quiet sort of satisfaction. Life has been pretty good. Not everything one desires comes, of course, but on the whole there is much for which to be serenely thankful.
5 Ups and downs, now happy about things, now depressed. About balanced in the long run.
1 Life often seems so worthless that there is little to keep one going. Nothing matters very much, there has been so much of hurt that laughter would be empty mockery.
2 Keeping a brave front, others think everything is all right. Inside life seems rather black.
1 Usually sad, weep readily, smile seldom.
11 Radiant, find every day full of interest, amusing things, and worthwhile things.
3 Seriously hurt by certain things, for which the good aspects of life cannot quite make up.
5 Quite objective. Like some experiences, dislike others. Not aware of any prevalent happiness or unhappiness.


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl