Correlational finding on Happiness and Change in mental health
Subject code: H13aa02

StudyHolloway & Carson (1999): study GB 1990
TitleSubjective Quality of Life, Psychopathology, Satisfacton with Care and Insight: An Exploratory Study.
SourceInternational Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1999, Vol. 45, 259 - 267
PublicMental patients, UK, followed 3 years,1990-1993
SampleNon-probability purposive sample
Non-Response0
Respondents N =70

Correlate
Author's labelChange in depression
Page in Source 264-5
Our classificationChange in mental health, code H13aa02
Operationalization
Reported 
1. Sadness          
2. Elation          
3. Inner tension    
4. Hostile feelings 
5. Inability to feel
6. Pessimistic thoughts
7. Suicidal thoughts
8. Hypochondriasis
9. Worrying over trifles
10. Compulsive thoughts
11. Phobias
12. Rituals
13. Indecision
14. Lassitude
15. Fatiguability
16. Concentration difficulties
17. Failing memory
18. Reduced appetite
19. Reduced sleep
20. Increased sleep
21. Reduced sexual interest
22. Increased sexual interest
23. Autonomic disturbances
24. Aches and pains
25. Muscular tension
26. Loss of sensation or movement
27. Realisation
28. Depersonalization
29. Feeling controlled
30. Disrupted thoughts
31. Ideas of persecution
32. Ideas of grandeur
33. Delusional mood
34. Ecstatic experiences
35. Morbid jealousy
36. Other delusions
37. Commenting voices
38. Other auditory hallucinations
39. Visual hallucinations
40. Other hallucinations

Observed
41. Apparent sadness
42. Elated mood
43. Hostility
44. Labile emotional responses
45. Lack of appropriate emotion
46. Autonomic disturbances
47. Sleepiness
48. Distractability
49. Withdrawal
50. Perplexity
51. Blank spells
52. Disorientation
53. Pressure of speech
54. Reduced speech
55. Specific speech defects
56. Flight of ideas
57. Incoherent speech
58. Perseveration
59. Overactivity
60. Slowness of movement
61. Agitation
62. Involuntary movements
63. Muscular tension
64. Mannerisms and postures
65. Hallucinatory behaviour
66. Global rating of illness
67. Assumed reliability of the rating
Remarks
Assessed at T1 and T3

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-ar=-.43 p < .011
T1-T3 change in hapiness by T1-T3 change symptoms 
(T1-T3 18 months)


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-DT-u-sqt-v-7-aSelfreport on single question, asked twice in interview:

How do you feel about your life as a whole......?
7 delighted
6 pleased
5 mostly satisfied
4 mixed
3 mostly dissatisfied
2 unhappy
1 terrible

Summation: arithmetic mean

Name: Andrews & Withey's "Delighted-Terrible Scale" (original version)
Also known as Lehman's 'Global lifesatisfaction'


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl