Correlational finding on Happiness and Defense-spending
Subject code: N12ab06a

StudyVeenhoven (1990): study ZZ Developed nations 1981
TitleResultaat van de Verzorgingsstaat: Leefbaarheid en Gelijkheid. ( Effects of the Welfare State: Livability and Equality).
SourceVandeBraak, H.J.;Ed.: Rationaliteit en beleid: Hoofdstukken uit de Rotterdamse Sociologie", Academisch Boeken Centrum, 1990, De Lier, Netherlands, 41 - 80
URLhttp://hdl.handle.net/1765/16146
PublicAdults, general public, 23 1st world nations, 1981-1982
SampleProbability sample (unspecified)
Non-Response
Respondents N =30000

Correlate
Author's labelgovernment expenditure
Page in Source 62
Our classificationDefense-spending, code N12ab06a
Operationalization
Expenditure on defence in % of GNP

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL---sq-vt-3-ar=+.30
zero order
O-HL---sq-vt-3-arpc=+.15
rpc controled for GNP


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL---sq-vt-3-aSelfreport on single question:

Scores on slightly different questions type O-HL transformed to a common three step scale


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
rpcPARTIAL CORRELATION COEFFICIENT
Type: test statistic
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning: a partial correlation between happiness and one of the correlates is that correlation, which remains after accounting for the contribution of the other influences, or some of them, to the total variability in the happiness scores.
Under that conditions
rpc > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds with a higher happiness rating,
rpc < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds with a lower happiness rating,
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl