Correlational finding on Happiness and Ever divorced/separated
Subject code: M01aa02a

StudyHawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980
TitleUnhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3598312
PublicCouples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =1150

Correlate
Author's labelContinuously married
Page in Source 458-460
Our classificationEver divorced/separated, code M01aa02a
Operationalization
1 married to the same spouse at T1(1980), T2(1983) and 
T3(1988)
0 other
Observed distributionRange 0-1, M=0.71, SD=0.46,

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=+.29 p < .001
T1 happiness by T1-T3 married to same spouse
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=+.26 p < .001
T4 happiness by T1-T3 married to same spouse
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.39 p < .001
T4 happiness (1992) by T1-T3 married to the same 
spouse, controlling for: 
- T1-T3 divorced and remarried
- T1-T3 divorced and remained single
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.30 p < .001
T1-T4 CHANGE in happiness (12 year interval)
T4 happiness by 1-T3 married to same spouse 
controlling:
- T1 happiness (for capturing change)
- T1-T3 divorced and remarried
- T1-T3 divorced and remained single
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adBeta=+.29 p < .001
additionally control for:
- Age
- Gender
- Race
- T4 years of education
- T4 family income
- T1-T4 number of children in household
- T1-T4 stepchild in household
- T1 religiosity
- Remarried
- Cohabited


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say you are these days? Would you say you are..........?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
Beta STANDARDIZED REGRESSION COEFFICIENT by LEAST SQUARES (OLS)
Type: test statistic.

Measurement level: Correlates: all metric, Happiness: metric.
Range: [-1 ; +1]

Meaning:
beta > 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta < 0 a higher correlate level corresponds to a higher happiness rating on average.
beta = 0 no correlation.
beta = + 1 or -1 perfect correlation.
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl