Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier mental health
Subject code: H13aa01

StudyHawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980
TitleUnhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3598312
PublicCouples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =1150

Correlate
Author's labelPsychological Distress
Page in Source 458
Our classificationEarlier mental health, code H13aa01
Operationalization
8 itmes from Langner's(1962) scale of psychiatric 
symptoms indicating impairment.
Observed distributionAt T4: M=12.68, SD=2.18, Range 8-24 At T2: M=12.60, SD=2.45, Range 8-24
Remarks
Assessed with 9 year interval at T2(1983) and T4(1992)

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.22 p < .001
T1 Happiness by T2 psychological distress
(3 year interval)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.22 p < .001
T4 Happiness by T2 psychological distress
(9 year interval)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.20 p < .001
T1 Happiness by T4 psychological distress
(12 year interval)
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=-.41 p < .001
T4 Happiness by T4 psychological distress

T1 is 1980


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say you are these days? Would you say you are..........?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl