Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier self-image
Subject code: S02aa01

StudyHawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980
TitleUnhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being.
SourceSocial Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471
URLhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/3598312
PublicCouples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992
SampleProbability simple random sample
Non-Response35%
Respondents N =1150

Correlate
Author's labelSelf-esteem
Page in Source 458
Our classificationEarlier self-image, code S02aa01
Operationalization
A six-item, Likert-type scale ranged 1= non to 5= a 
great deal.(Rogenburg et al. 1995)
It addresses aspects such as whether respondents feel 
that they have good qualities, feel useless at times, 
are satisfied with themselves, or feel that they are 
failures.
Observed distributionM=19.31, SD=2.15, Range 6-24
Error EstimatesAlpha= .77
Remarks
Assessed at T4

Observed Relation with Happiness
Happiness
Measure
StatisticsElaboration/Remarks
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=+.30 p < .001
T4 Happiness by T4 self-esteem
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adr=+.14 p < .001
T4 Happiness at by T1 Self-esteem (1980, 12 years 
earlier)


Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
CodeFull Text
O-HL-c-sq-v-3-adSelfreport on single question:

Taking all things together, how would you say you are these days? Would you say you are..........?
3 very happy
2 pretty happy
1 not too happy


Appendix 2: Statistics used
SymbolExplanation
rPRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')
Type: test statistic.
Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metric
Range: [-1; +1]

Meaning:
r = 0 no correlation ,
r = 1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, and
r = -1 perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl