### Correlational finding on Happiness and Earlier self-imageSubject code: S02aa01

 Study Hawkins & Booth (2005): study US 1980 Title Unhappily Ever After: Effects of Long-Term, Low-Quality Marriages on Well-Being. Source Social Forces, 2005, Vol. 84, 451 - 471 URL http://www.jstor.org/stable/3598312 Public Couples, USA, followed 12 years, 1980-1992 Sample Probability simple random sample Non-Response 35% Respondents N = 1150

 Correlate Author's label Self-esteem Page in Source 458 Our classification Earlier self-image, code S02aa01 Operationalization ```A six-item, Likert-type scale ranged 1= non to 5= a great deal.(Rogenburg et al. 1995) It addresses aspects such as whether respondents feel that they have good qualities, feel useless at times, are satisfied with themselves, or feel that they are failures. ``` Observed distribution M=19.31, SD=2.15, Range 6-24 Error Estimates Alpha= .77 Remarks ```Assessed at T4 ```

 Observed Relation with Happiness HappinessMeasure Statistics Elaboration/Remarks O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ad r=+.30 p < .001 ```T4 Happiness by T4 self-esteem ``` O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ad r=+.14 p < .001 ```T4 Happiness at by T1 Self-esteem (1980, 12 years earlier) ```

Appendix 1: Happiness measures used
 Code Full Text O-HL-c-sq-v-3-ad Selfreport on single question:Taking all things together, how would you say you are these days? Would you say you are..........?3 very happy2 pretty happy1 not too happy

Appendix 2: Statistics used
 Symbol Explanation r PRODUCT-MOMENT CORRELATION COEFFICIENT (Also "Pearson's correlation coefficient' or simply 'correlation coefficient')Type: test statistic.Measurement level: Correlate: metric, Happiness: metricRange: [-1; +1]Meaning:r = 0 « no correlation ,r = 1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with high happiness values, andr = -1 « perfect correlation, where high correlate values correspond with low happiness values.
Source:
Ruut Veenhoven, World Database of Happiness, Collection of Correlational Findings, Erasmus University Rotterdam.
https://worlddatabaseofhappiness.eur.nl