Correlational findings

Study Ludwig (1971): study US 1966

Female students, undergraduates, University of Wisconsin, USA, 196?
N =
Non Response
81%; 61% refusal, 5% eliminated on basis of screening data, 15% miscellaneous re
Multiple assesment methods
Structured questionnaires, tests; and interview.


Authors's Label
Self-perceived creativity and maturity
Our Classification
2-item index of direct questions on creativity and personality maturity compared with others.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-AOL-u-mq-v-10-a AoV = + ns Ss answered these questions at the end of an experimental situation in which their self-esteem was experimentally altered. This was done by means of a false personality report dealing with the subject's creativity, maturity and other things.
Self-perceived creativity: r = +.05 (ns)
Self-perceived maturity  : r = +.17 (ns)

- For happy Ss self-perceived creativity and maturity is unaffected by bolstered self-esteem and decreased by reduced self-esteem.
- For unhappy Ss it is increased by bolstered self-esteem and unaffected by reduced self-esteem.