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Correlational findings

Study Goodhart (1985): study US 1983

Public:
Students in stress, followed 8 weeks, Illinois, USA, 1983
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 173
Non Response:
1.7% dropout
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper
Questionnaire administered in class. T1: pretest, T2: post- test; after 8 weeks.

Correlate

Authors's label
Negative thinking
Our Classification
Operationalization
Ss were invited to think of a stressful event in the recent past and then complete a 46-item event-outcome- appraisal questionnaire (Goodhart 1981); 20 items in the questionnaire described negative outcomes.
Typical items are:
Self-relevant items:
1. I began to feel that I was doing
   little toward my life enjoyment or
   personal development.
2. I became more uncertain about who I
   am or want to become.
3. I began to doubt whether my present
   career plans are consistent with  
   true interests and skills.
Externally relevant items:
1. The event made it more difficult to
   carry out ordinary daily activities.
2. The event created a financial
   strain.
3. Others were unaware of or
   insensitive to my difficulties.
Negative thinking assessed at T1.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-DT-u-sq-v-7-a Beta = -.44 p < .001 T1 negative thinking by T1 happiness.
-Self relevant thinking         ß=-.37 (001)
-Externally relevant thinking   ß=-.00 (ns)
ß's controlled for T1 positive thinking.

O-DT-u-sq-v-7-a Beta = -.33 p < .001 T1 negative thinking by T2 happiness.
-Self relevant thinking         ß=-.36 (001)
-Externally relevant thinking   ß=-.00 (ns)
ß's controlled for T1 positive thinking.