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Correlational findings

Study Goodhart (1985): study US 1983

Public:
Students in stress, followed 8 weeks, Illinois, USA, 1983
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 173
Non Response:
1.7% dropout
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper
Questionnaire administered in class. T1: pretest, T2: post- test; after 8 weeks.

Correlate

Authors's label
Negative thinking
Our Classification
  • COPING Current coping Current coping-style
  • PERSONALITY: HISTORY Earlier personality traits Earlier positive thinking
  • PERSONALITY: CURRENT TRAITS Positive reacting
Operationalization
Ss were invited to think of a stressful event in the recent past and then complete a 46-item event-outcome- appraisal questionnaire (Goodhart 1981); 20 items in the questionnaire described negative outcomes.
 Typical items are:
 Self-relevant items:
 1. I began to feel that I was doing
    little toward my life enjoyment or
    personal development.
 2. I became more uncertain about who I
    am or want to become.
 3. I began to doubt whether my present
    career plans are consistent with  
    true interests and skills.
 Externally relevant items:
 1. The event made it more difficult to
    carry out ordinary daily activities.
 2. The event created a financial
    strain.
 3. Others were unaware of or
    insensitive to my difficulties.
 Negative thinking assessed at T1.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-DT-u-sq-v-7-a Beta = -.44 T1 negative thinking by T1 happiness.
 -Self relevant thinking         ß=-.37 (001)
 -Externally relevant thinking   ß=-.00 (ns)
 ß's controlled for T1 positive thinking.
 
 
O-DT-u-sq-v-7-a Beta = -.33 T1 negative thinking by T2 happiness.
 -Self relevant thinking         ß=-.36 (001)
 -Externally relevant thinking   ß=-.00 (ns)
 ß's controlled for T1 positive thinking.