Correlational findings

Study Goodhart (1985): study US 1983

Students in stress, followed 8 weeks, Illinois, USA, 1983
N =
Non Response
1.7% dropout
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
Questionnaire administered in class. T1: pretest, T2: post- test; after 8 weeks.


Authors's Label
Positive thinking
Our Classification
Ss were invited to think of a stressful event in the recent past and then completed a 46-item event-outcome- appraisal questionnaire (Goodhart 1981); 20 items in this questionnaire described positive outcomes.
Typical items are:
Self-relevant items:
1. I developed greater trust in my
   judgments of situations or people.
2. I modified personal or career goals
   to more closely match my true
   interests, abilities or values.
3. By coping with events, I gained
   confidence in my ability to handle
   other difficulties.
Externally relevant items:
1. I learned to consider others' advice
   when planning career or personal
   development goals.
2. I discovered I could rely on others
   for help in getting through
3. Others became more sympathetic
   toward my situation or difficulties.
Positive thinking assessed at T1.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-DT-u-sq-v-7-a Beta = +.29 p < .001 T1 positive thinking by T1 happiness.
-Self relevant thinking:         ß=+.34 (001)
-Externally relevant thinking:   ß=+.00 (ns)     
ß's controlled for T1 negative thinking.

O-DT-u-sq-v-7-a Beta = +.06 ns T1 positive thinking by T2 happiness.
-Self relevant thinking:         ß=+.00 (ns)   
-Externally relevant thinking:   ß=+.14 (ns)
ß's controlled for T1 negative thinking.