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Correlational findings

Study Ormel (1980): study NL 1970

Public:
15-60 aged, general public, followed 12 month, The Netherlands, 1967-77
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 296
Non Response:
18%
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face
Structured interview

Correlate

Authors's label
Psycho-social burdens
Our Classification
Operationalization
Major prolonged burdening problems as assessed in a structured interview.
1. Strictly personal problems like
   strong feelings of loneliness, fear,
   depression or inferiority.
2. Interpersonal problems like
   unsatisfactory sexual relation with
   partner or permanent quarrels with
   neighbours.
3. Health problems like chronic heart-
   disease or prolonged revalidation.
4. Housing problems like too little
   space or bad condition of the house.
5. Problems in the jobsituation like
   too much overtime, working in shifts
   or doing work for which got no
   training.
6. Financial problems like high
   mortgage rates or having to pay
   off debts.
7. Abnormal behaviour like alcoholism.
   or problems with the law.
Problems were scored for burdeningness on a 7-point scale by an expert-panel on the basis of interview-protocols. Social and economic background of the Ss were taken into account.

Problems were separated into two categories, according to the origin of the burden.
a SELF INDUCED BURDENS
- The event or the problem is caused
  by a voluntary action of the
  subject, like marriage or buying a
  house.
- The event is caused by evident
  inadequate psychic functioning like
  a road accident caused by careless
  driving.  
b EXTERNALLY INDUCED BURDENS
  The event or the problem is not
  caused by voluntary action of the
  subject like death of a family-
  member.
Assessed at T2(1976)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-c r = -.43 p < .01 T2 happiness by T2 self-induced burdens A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-c r = -.45 p < .01 T3 happiness by T2 self-induced burdens

A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-c Beta-L = -.22 T2 happiness by T2 self-induced burdens.
ßL path coefficient in a LISREL model, also involving neuroticism, selfesteem, internal control, intimacy with partner, adequacy of coping and externally-induced burdens.
Self-induced burdens are related to:
- Adequacy of coping (ßL=-.40), which on its turn
  is related to internal control (ßL=+.15), self-
  esteem(ßL=+.16) and neuroticism (ßL=-.18).
- Intimacy with partner (ßL=-.24),which on its
  turn is related to internal control (ßL=+.13)
  and neuroticism (ßL=-.23).
- Neuroticism (ßL=+.33)
- Internal control (ßL=-.22)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-c Beta-L = -.39 T2 happiness by T2 self-induced burdens.
Simplified LISREL model (omitting intimacy and adequacy of coping)
                                              
EXTERNALLY INDUCED BURDENS

A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-c r = -.21 p < .01 T2 happiness by T2 externally-induced burdens A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-c r = -.23 p < .01 T3 happiness by T2 externally-induced burdens

A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-c Beta-L = -.15 T2 happiness by T2 externally-induced burdens.
ßL path coefficient in a LISREL model, also involving neuroticism, selfesteem, internal control, intimacy with partner, adequacy of coping and self-induced burdens.
Externally induced burdens are related to internal control (ßL=-.28)
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-c Beta-L = -.21 T2 happiness by T2 externally-induced burdens
Simplified model(ommitting intimacy and adequacy of coping)