Correlational findings

Study Matlin & Gawron (1979): study US 1977

University students white, middle-class, State University of New-York, USA,197?
N = 133
Non Response
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
Questionnaire administered in class at two consecutive days.


Authors's Label
Pollyannaism: cognitive tendencies
Our Classification
Tests of memory and verbal behavior.
1. Selective recall: tendency to recall    pleasant words more accurately
2. Spew tendency: tendency to list more    pleasant items first
3. Frequency estimation: tendency to   
   judge pleasant words as more   
   frequent than unpleasant words in      the English language
4. Free association: tendency to supply    more responses to pleasant stimuli  
   than to unpleasant stimuli
5. Word usage: tendency to use pleasant    words in describing people in   

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-H?-?-sq-?-*-a r = +.18 s 1 selective recall C-BW-c-sq-l-11-a r = ns 1 selective recall O-H?-?-sq-?-*-a r = ns 2 spew tendency C-BW-c-sq-l-11-a r = ns 2 spew tendency O-H?-?-sq-?-*-a r = +.19 s 3 frequency estimation C-BW-c-sq-l-11-a r = ns 3 frequency estimation O-H?-?-sq-?-*-a r = ns 4 free association C-BW-c-sq-l-11-a r = ns 4 free association O-H?-?-sq-?-*-a r = ns 5 word usage C-BW-c-sq-l-11-a r = ns 5 word usage