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Correlational findings

Study Veenhoven (1984): study ZZ EU 9 1975

Public:
15+ aged, general public, EU 9 member states, Western Europe, 1975
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 12996
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face
Structured interview

Correlate

Authors's label
Freedom of press
Our Classification
Operationalization
Press freedom rated on the basis of 'the press freedom index' (Missouri School of Journalism) consisting of 23 items rated on a scale from -4 to 4.
Examples of items are:
1. legal controls;
2. favoritism in the release of    government news;
3. censorship.
Data drawn from Kurian (1979:362).

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-HV---sq-vt-3-a r = +.63 p < .05                   M happiness    Rate of freedom
                                 of press
Great Britain        1.95             2.37
France               1.89             1.92
W-Germany            1.89             2.43
Italy                1.61             1.98
Belgium              2.27             2.53
The Netherlands      2.22             3.02
Luxembourg           2.03             no data
Denmark              2.54             2.65 Ireland              1.88             2.37