Correlational findings

Study Brenner (1979): study US Washington County, Maryland 1971

18+ aged, general public, Washington County, USA, followed 1 to 12 months, 1971-1974
N = 1755
Non Response
Non-response: 23% Not selected for follow up: 36% Dropout: ±23 %
Interview: face-to-face
followed by a mailed questionnaire or a re-interview.


Authors's Label
Psychosomatic symptoms
Our Classification
Three-item index:
1. 'I felt that everything I did was an effort.'
2. 'I did not feel like eating; my appetite was poor.'
3. 'My sleep was restless.
Subjects were asked for each item to indicate how often they felt this way during the past week; 1: rarely or none of the time, 2: some or a little of the time, 3: occasionally or a moderate amount of time, 4: most or all of the time.
These categories were recoded in: rarely experiencing depressed affect (1), occasionally experiencing depressed affect (2+3), frequently experiencing depressed affect (4).
Items are drawn from the 20-item CES-D scale of depressive symptomatology (Comstock & Helsing, 1976; Radloff, 1977).

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-BBr-cw-mq-v-4-b G = -.32 p < .001 Synchronic correlation at T1.

A-BBr-cw-mq-v-4-b Gs = -.06 ns Synchronic correlation at T1 controlled for happiness (AFF 2.2a).