Correlational findings

Study Wessman et al. (1960): study US 1957

Female college students, followed 6 weeks, Radcliffe, USA, 1957
N = 14
Non Response:
44% dropouts
Multiple methods
Mood diary completed daily during 6 weeks and various tests


Authors's label
Self-esteem (real-ideal congruency)
Our Classification
Correlation between self and ideal des- criptions, as assessed by a 45-item Q sort, filled out both in very elated and in very depressed moods, for both self-concept ('the most accurate pictu- re of yourself as you really believe you are now') and ideal-concept ('the picture of yourself as the kind of per- son you have hoped to become or have fancied yourself to be').

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-ARE-md-sqr-v-10-b rs = - s For congruency in elation   : rs = -.36 (ns)
For congruency in depression: rs = -.50 (05)

Both the happier and unhappier girls experience discrepancies between real-self and ideal-self in depression.
In elation the unhappier girls feel no consistent divergence from their ideals (primarily concern- ing intellectual ambitions), while the happier girls continue to feel areas of discontent (pri- marily concerning social and emotional quali- ties).