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Correlational findings

Study Bankoff (1981): study US 1979

Public:
Widowed women in grief, USA, 198?
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 447
Non Response:
50%
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper
Mailed questionnaire

Correlate

Authors's label
Type of friendship support
Our Classification
Operationalization
Single direct questions about social support by friends (married friends, widowed/single friends and neighborhood friends):




1.Emotional support: "How much can you
  depend on your..... friends for
  support and comfort, when you are
  feeling down".






2.Guidance: "how much can you depend
  on your ....friends for information
  and advice about what to do or who
  to see about problems you are
  experiencing as a widowed person."









3.Approval for starting to lead an
  active social life: "How much do your
  ....friends approve of you as a
  widowed person having (or wanting)
  an active social life."




4.Social companionship:  
- the frequency of recreation,
  entertainment or social activities.
- number of accompagning network-
  members.

5.Intimacy: the frequency with which
  the widows have discussed their
  important personal problems.










6.Attention: amount of contact widows
  have had with their friends.











7.Dependability: the extent to which
  which the widows felt they could
  depend on their friends in case of
  emergency.






8.Overall support

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-e Beta = ns Crisis loss phase
Controlled for social companionship and approval of lifestyle.
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-e Beta = ns Transition phase
Controlled for social companionship, guidance and
dependability.

When split up for support from different kinds of friends not any significant relation either.

A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-e Beta = ns Crisis loss phase
Controlled for social companionship and approval of lifestyle.
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-e Beta = +.21 p < .05 Transition phase
Controlled for social companionship.

When split up for specific kinds of friends only
guidance from widowed friends is significantly related to happiness in the crisis loss phase
group.
In the transition group only guidance from neighbours is related to happiness.
                     
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-e Beta = -.21 ns Crisis loss phase
Controlled for social companionship.
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-e Beta = ns Transition phase
Controlled for social companionship, guidance and
dependability.

When split up for support from different kinds of friends not any significant relation either.

A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-e r = +.28 p < .05 Crisis loss phase A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-e r = +.22 p < .001 Transition phase

When split up for support from different kinds of friends not any significant relation.

A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-e Beta = ns Crisis loss phase
Controlled for social companionship and approval of lifestyle.
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-e Beta = ns Transition phase
Controlled for social companionship, guidance and
dependability.

When split up for support from different kinds of friends only intimacy from married friends is significantly related to happiness in the crisis loss group.
Intimacy by widowed friends is significantly related to happiness in the transition group.

A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-e Beta = ns Crisis loss phase
Controlled for social companionship and approval of lifestyle.
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-e Beta = ns Transition phase
Controlled for social companionship, guidance and
dependability.

When split up for support from different kinds of friends not any significant relation either.



A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-e Beta = ns Crisis loss phase
Controlled for social companionship and approval of lifestyle.
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-e Beta = -.16 p < .05 Transition phase
Controlled for social companionship and guidance.
When split up for support from different kinds of friends dependability from neighbors is significantly related to happiness in the transition loss group.

A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-e = .13 p < .05 Combination of all factors of friendship support
that have a significant contribution on happiness in the crisis loss phase.
A-BB-cw-mq-v-4-e = .07 p < .005 Combination of all factors of friendship support
that have a significant contribution on happiness in the transition phase.