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Correlational findings

Study Noelle-Neumann (1977a): study XZ Germany West 1974

Public:
Adults, general public, West-Germany, 1974
Survey name:
DE-Allensbacher Survey
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 2029
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: face-to-face

Correlate

Authors's label
Happiness
Our Classification
Operationalization
When somebody should say about you: "This person is very happy"; is he right or wrong?
3 right
2 fifty - fifty
1 wrong
0 difficult to say

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-b G = +.48 p < .01 all A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-b tb = +.22 p < .01 A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-b G = +.40 p < .01 assistent-labourors A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-b tb = +.17 p < .01 A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-b G = +.30 p < .01 craftsmen A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-b tb = +.13 p < .01 A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-b G = +.57 p < .01 independent labourors A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-b tb = +.24 p < .01 A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-b G = +.67 p < .01 managers A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-b tb = +.30 p < .01 A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-b G = +.70 p < .01 independent people A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-b tb = +.36 p < .01 A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-b G = +.48 p < .01 landowners A-CA-mh-ri-v-2-b tb = +.22 p < .01                                     
Stating to be happy in spite of unhappy appearance is rather exeptional (7%), the reverse more common (38%).

The discrepancy between appearance and statement
is greatest in the manual profession.