Correlational findings

Study Costa & McCrae (1980): study US 1976

35-85 aged white males (largely veterans), USA, 1976
N = 1100
Non Response
T1:21%; T2:18%; T3:27%; T4:46%
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
Mailed questionnaire att intervals of 3 months


Authors's Label
Poor inhibition of impulse
Our Classification
5-item index from the EASI-III Tempera-
ment Survey (Buss and Plomin, 1975:241-242) rated on a 5-point scale ranging from 'a little' to 'a lot':
1. "I have trouble controlling my          impulses"
2. "Usually I can't stand waiting"
3. "I can tolerate frustration better
    than most, (reverse)"
4. "I have trouble resisting my            cravings" (for food, cigarettes,       etc.).
5. "I like to spend my money right away
    rather than save it for"         long-range goods".

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-b r = -.22 p < .001 Hedonic level assessed at T1, T2, T3, and T4 (3 month-intervals). Poor inhibition of impulse at T2.

Correlations with hedonic level at:
T1:  r = -.16  (001)
T2:  r = -.23  (001)
T3:  r = -.18  (001)
T4:  r = -.18  (001)
SUM: r = -.22  (001)

PAS: r(mean) = -.05
NAS: r(mean) = +.24