Study Costa & McCrae (1980): study US 1976
- 35-85 aged white males (largely veterans), USA, 1976
- N = 1100
- Non Response
- T1:21%; T2:18%; T3:27%; T4:46%
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
Mailed questionnaire att intervals of 3 months
- Authors's Label
- Poor inhibition of impulse
- Our Classification
- 5-item index from the EASI-III Tempera-
ment Survey (Buss and Plomin, 1975:241-242) rated on a 5-point scale ranging from 'a little' to 'a lot':
1. "I have trouble controlling my impulses"
2. "Usually I can't stand waiting"
3. "I can tolerate frustration better than most" (reverse)
4. "I have trouble resisting my cravings (for food, cigarettes, etc)"
5. "I like to spend my money right away rather than save it for long-range goods".
Observed Relation with Happiness
Correlations with hedonic level at:
T1: r = -.16 (001)
T2: r = -.23 (001)
T3: r = -.18 (001)
T4: r = -.18 (001)
Sum: r = -.22 (001)
PAS: r(mean) = -.05
NAS: r(mean) = +.24