Correlational findings

Study Pollmann-Schult (2018): study ZZ Europe 2002

18-59 aged women in 24 European nations 2002 - 2012
Survey name
EU-ESS 1-5: 2002-2012
N = 56431
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
Gender empowerment in nation
Our Classification
Related specification variables
GEM (Gender Empowerment Measure) provided by the United Nations Development Programme. Ranges from 0 to 1 with higher values representing greater gender equality.  It is constructed from the combination of the percentage of female members of the country's parliament, the percentage of positions as legislators and managers held by women, the percentage of professional and technical positions held by women, and women's share of earned income compared to that of men. (p.2068f)

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-b b = +.41 p < .01 Group of mothers O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-b b = +.31 p < .05 Group of single women

b controled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - single (vs. partnered)
  - age
  - employment
  - education
  - health
  - (number and age of children
  - survey year)
- country characteristics
  - family benefits
  - child care provision
  - societal attitudes (to single parenthood)
  - GDP (log)