Correlational findings

Study Pollmann-Schult (2018): study ZZ Europe 2002

18-59 aged women in 24 European nations 2002 - 2012
Survey name
EU-ESS 1-5: 2002-2012
N = 56431
Non Response
Interview: face-to-face


Authors's Label
Family benefits in nation
Our Classification
Data European System of Integrated Social Protection Statistics, these benefits include all transfers to families and children, in cash or in kind, intended to relieve them of the financial burden of several necessities. This indicator is provided by Eurostat for all survey years and ranges from 0.8% (Poland) to 4.1% (Denmark). (p.2067)
Related specification variables
Percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) spent on social protection benefits for children and families.

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-b b = -.07 ns Group of mothers O-SLW-c-sq-n-11-b b = -.05 ns Group of single women

b controled for:
- Personal characteristics
  - single (vs. partnered)
  - age
  - employment
  - education
  - health
  - (number and age of children
  - survey wave)
- Country characteristics
  - child care provisions
  - gender empowerment
  - societal attitudes (to single parenthood)
  - GDP (log)