print

Correlational findings

Study Costa & McCrae (1980): study US 1976

Public:
35-85 aged white males (largely veterans), USA, 1976
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 1100
Non Response:
T1:21%; T2:18%; T3:27%; T4:46%
Assessment:
Questionnaire: paper
Mailed questionnaire att intervals of 3 months

Correlate

Authors's label
Hopelessness
Our Classification
Operationalization
Selfreport on 20 questions, such as
- I might as well give up because I cant make things better for my self (true)
- I can't imagine what my life would be like in 20 years (true)
I lok forward to the future with hope and enthusiasm (false)
- When things are going badly I am helped by knowing they can't stay that way forever

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-BB-cm-mq-v-2-b r = +.61 p < .001 Hopelessness assessed at T3. Hedonic level sum of scores at T1, T2, T3 and T4 (3 month-intervals).