Correlational findings

Study Feather & O'Brien (1986): study AU 1980

School-leavers, Australia, followed 2 years,1980-1982
N = 5446
Non Response
T2: 25%, T3: 34%
Questionnaire: Paper & Pencil Interview (PAPI)
Mailed orr administered in the schools.


Authors's Label
Male sex
Our Classification
Level of happiness at T1(1980), T2(1981) and T3(1982). T1 happiness by male sex (sample A): female male difference
Related specification variables
0  Females
1  Males

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks A-AOL-g-mq-n-24-a AoV = + happiness at T1  Mt'= 6.58  Mt'= 6.67     +.09

T3 happiness by male sex (sample D):
                 female     male       difference
A-AOL-g-mq-n-24-a AoV = - happiness at T3  Mt'= 6.54  Mt'= 6.50     -.04

T2 and T3 happiness by male sex (sample A+B):
                 female     male       difference
A-AOL-g-mq-n-24-a AoV = + ns happiness at T2  Mt'= 6.18  Mt'= 6.21     +.03
happiness at T3  Mt'= 6.25  Mt'= 6.26     +.01
Interaction sex x time (non-significant):
T2 to T3              +.07       +.05     -.02

Significance assessed by variance-analysis, also involving employment.

The original depression score is ranging from
4 to 28. Mt' is standardized into a happpiness score (0-10 and reversed)

Possible testing effects checked by comparing three sub-samples:
- sample A: selected at T1, tested at T1, T2, T3
- sample B: selected at T1, tested at T2 and T3
- sample C: selected at T1, tested at T3 only
At T3 happiness appeared lower in sample A than in sample B, but there is little evidence for systematic testing effects.