print

Correlational findings

Study Ponomarenko (2016): study ZZ EU 13 2006

Public:
50+ aged, 13 European countries, 2006/07
Survey name:
SHARE
Sample:
Respondents:
N = 8098
Non Response:
Assessment:
Interview: computer assisted (CAPI)

Correlate

Authors's Label
Occupational history
Our Classification
Distribution
A:M=18.92, SD=4.71
B:M=57.76, SD=7.35
Related specification variables
Operationalization
selfreported
A. age at first job
B. age at last job

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-c b = +/- Age at first job

Men                            b = +.01 (ns)
- socio-democratic nations     b = +.03 (ns)
- conservative nations         b = -.02 (ns)
- southern nations             b = +.09 (10)
- Post-transitional nations    b = -.02 (ns)
Women                          b = -.03 (ns)
- socio-democratic nations     b = -.04 (ns)
- conservative nations         b = -.02 (ns)
- southern nations             b = -.04 (ns)
- Post-transitional nations    b = -.03 (05)
O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-c b = + p < .10 Age at last job

Men                            b = +.05 (10)
- socio-democratic nations     b = +.16 (ns)
- conservative nations         b = +.07 (10)
- southern nations             b = -.02 (ns)
- Post-transitional nations    b = -.02 (ns)
Women                          b = +.04 (10)
- socio-democratic nations     b = +.03 (10)
- conservative nations         b = +.05 (10)
- southern nations             b = -.03 (ns)
- Post-transitional nations    b = +.05 (ns)

b controlled for
- employment history
  - inactivity history
  - unemployment history
  - part-time history
  - age at first job
- current situation
  - age, age squared
  - living with a partner
  - number of children
  - education
  - birth cohort
  - physical limitation
  - log pension income
  - nation

Similar results when controlling for
- number of inactivity episodes
- number of unemployment episodes
- number of part-time episodes
- average length of inactivity episodes
- average length of unemployed episodes
- average length of part-time episodes

Sociodemocratic welfare states such as Sweden and Denmark, universalistic coverage of social security and early expansion of the service sector allow flexible careers.

Conservative welfare regimes are Austria, Switzerland, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands and France.

Southern welfare states, like Italy, Greece and Spain are paired with a strong employment protection, which creates an insider/outsider system.

Post-transitional nations include the Central and Eastern European nations since they undergo a transformation diverging from a unifying socialism to different market economies in 1990s.