Correlational findings

Study Ponomarenko (2016): study ZZ EU 13 2006

50+ aged, 13 European countries, 2006/07
Survey name
N = 8098
Non Response
Interview: Computer Assisted Personal Interview (CAPI)


Authors's Label
Average length of unemployment episodes
Our Classification
unemployment history from the Job Episodes Panel (JEP), which was transformed from SHARELIFE data
Related specification variables
selfreported lenght of earlier unemployment periods

Observed Relation with Happiness

Happiness Measure Statistics Elaboration / Remarks O-SLu-u-sq-n-11-c b = - ns Men                             b = -.01 (ns)
- socio-democratic nations      b = +.07 (ns)
- conservative nations          b = -.02 (ns)
- southern nations              b = -.01 (ns)
- Post-transitional nations     b = -.05 (ns)
Women                           b = -.01 (ns)
- socio-democratic nations      b = +.01 (ns)
- conservative  nations         b = -.02 (ns)
- southern nations              b = -.00 (ns)
- Post-transitional nations     b = -.04 (10)

b controlled for
- employment history
  - number of inactivity episodes
  - number of unemployment episodes
  - number of part-time episodes
  - average length of inactivity episodes
  - average length of part-time episodes
- curren situation
  - age, age squared
  - living with a partner
  - number of children
  - education
  - birth cohort
  - physical limitation
  - log pension income
  - nation

Sociodemocratic welfare states such as Sweden and Denmark, universalistic coverage of social security and early expansion of the service sector allow flexible careers.

Conservative welfare regimes are Austria, Switzerland, Germany, Belgium, Netherlands and France.

Southern welfare states, like Italy, Greece and Spain are paired with a strong employment protection, which creates an insider/outsider system.

Post-transitional nations include the Central and Eastern European nations since they undergo a transformation diverging from a unifying socialism to different market economies in 1990s